2019年08月02日

長塚節『土』

 ヤッホーくんのこのブログ、先月2019年07月14日付け日記「高村薫」の再読をお願いします。
 高村薫の愛読書が長塚節(1879 - 1915)の『土』(1910年、夏目漱石の推薦で朝日新聞に連載、1912年春陽堂より出版)。

 型に入った批評家のために閑却され、多忙のため不公平を甘んずる批評家のために閑却されては、作家(ことに新進作家)は気の毒である。
 時と場合の許す限りそういう弊は矯正(きょうせい)したい。
「朝日」に長塚節氏の「土」を掲げるのも幾分か此主意である。

 2、3年前、節氏の佐渡記行を読んで感服した事がある。
 記行文であったけれども普通の小説よりも面白いと思った。
 氏はまだ若い人である。
 しかも若い人に似合わず落ち付き払って、行くべき路を行って、少しも時好を追わない。
 是はわざと流行に反対したの何のという六(む)ずかしい意味ではなくて、氏には本来芸術的な一片の性情があって、氏はただ其性情に従うの外(ほか)、他を顧(かえり)みる暇を有(も)たないのである。
 余は其態度を床(ゆか)しく思った。

 尤(もっと)も、今度載(の)せる「土」の出来栄(できばえ)は、今から先を見越した様な予言が出来る程進行していない。
 最初余から交渉した時、節氏は自分の責任の重いのを気遣(きづか)って長い間返事を寄こさなかった。
 夫(それ)から漸(ようや)く遣(や)って見様という挨拶(あいさつ)が来た。
 夫から40枚程原稿が来た。
 予告は此原稿と、氏の書信によって、草平氏が書いた。
 今の所余は「土」の一篇がうまく成功する事を氏のために、読者のために、且(かつ)新聞のために祈るのみである。

 有名な英国の碩学(せきがく)ミルは若い時、同じく若いテニソンをロンドン・リポジトリ紙上に紹介して、猶(なお)其次号にブラウニングを紹介しようとした。
 主筆から彼の批評は既に前号に載(の)せたという返書を得て調べて見ると、頁(ページ)の最後の一行にただ「ポーリン是は譫言(うわごと)なり」とあった。
 同雑誌の編輯者(へんしゅうしゃ)が一行余った処へ埋草に入れたものである。
 ブラウニングは後年人に語って、あの批評のために自分が世間に知られる機会が20年後れたと云った。

 余が新しい作家を紹介するのは、ミルを以(も)って自ら任ずると云うより、かかる無責任な評論家の手から、望みのある人を救おうとする老婆心である。


長塚節氏の小説「土」
夏目漱石
https://www.aozora.gr.jp/cards/000148/files/2682_6497.html

「土」を読むものは、屹度(きっと)自分も泥の中を引(ひ)き摺(ず)られるような気がするだろう。
 余もそう云う感じがした。

 或者は何故(なぜ)長塚君はこんな読みづらいものを書いたのだと疑がうかも知れない。
 そんな人に対して余はただ一言、斯様(かよう)な生活をして居る人間が、我々と同時代に、しかも帝都を去る程遠(ほどとお)からぬ田舎(いなか)に住んで居るという悲惨な事実を、ひしと一度は胸の底に抱(だ)き締(し)めて見たら、公等の是から先の人生観の上に、又公等の日常の行動の上に、何かの参考として利益を与えはしまいかと聞きたい。

 余はとくに歓楽に憧憬(しょうけい)する若い男や若い女が、読み苦しいのを我慢して、此「土」を読む勇気を鼓舞する事を希望するのである。
 余の娘が年頃になって、音楽会がどうだの、帝国座がどうだのと云い募(つの)る時分になったら、余は是非此「土」を読ましたいと思って居る。
 娘は屹度(きっと)厭(いや)だというに違ない。
 より多くの興味を感ずる恋愛小説と取り換えて呉(く)れというに違ない。

 けれども余は其時娘に向って、面白いから読めというのではない。苦しいから読めというのだと告げたいと思って居る。

 参考の為だから、世間を知る為だから、知って己れの人格の上に暗い恐ろしい影を反射させる為だから我慢して読めと忠告したいと思って居る。

 何も考えずに暖かく成長した若い女(男でも同じである)の起す菩提心(ぼだいしん)や宗教心は、皆此暗い影の奥から射して来るのだと余は固く信じて居るからである。

『土』に就て
――長塚節著『土』序――
夏目漱石
https://www.aozora.gr.jp/cards/000148/files/2668_6505.html

しろかねのはり打つことき
   きりきりす幾夜はえなは
      すゝしかるらむ  節

 九州大学医学部構内、薬学研究院の、ブルーの窓のモダンな建物の前の駐車場の一角に、「長塚節逝去の地」の観光案内板があり、その側に御影石の四角い石柱に刻まれた長塚節の歌碑があります。
 長塚節は、貧農の生活を写実的に描いた、わが国最初の本格的な農村小説とされる『土』の作者としてよく知られています。

 節は茨城県の人で、若くして上京し正岡子規に師事しますが、子規が亡くなってからは伊藤左千夫と文学行動を共にし、『馬酔木』『アカネ』『アララギ』といった著名な歌誌の創刊に参加し、同人となり「写生の歌」を提唱するなど、おおいに活躍をしました。

 しかし33歳の時、咽喉結核を病み、夏目漱石の紹介状をもって、1912(明治45)年4月、九州大学医学部の久保猪之吉博士の診察を受けることになりました。

 久保猪之吉はドイツに留学、近代鼻科学の権威グスタフ・キリャンの高弟となり、帰国後九州大学医学部の初代耳鼻咽喉科教授となりました。
 日本の耳鼻咽喉科を築いた一人として著名ですが、一方、正岡子規を中心とする『ホトトギス』の同人として夏目漱石とも親しく、句集『春潮集』、文集『外国船』などがあり、医学部構内に

   霧ふかき南独逸の朝の窓おぼろにうつれ故郷の山

の歌碑があります。

 二人の仲を取り持った夏目漱石は、小説『土』を東京朝日新聞に連載することを推薦してくれた人でもありました。
 しかし漱石の願いも空しく、病状は悪化の一途をたどり、1915(大正4)年2月8日、節は35歳の若さでこの世を去りました。

 歌碑に刻まれた自筆の歌は、1914(大正3)年の6月から8月までの入院中に作られたもので、節が志向した「気品」と「冴え」に満ちています。
 死を目前にして、節は理想の歌境に到達したのでした。


萬盛堂歳時記、2007年如月号、Vol 76
長塚節、命の絶唱
http://www.ishimura.co.jp/saijiki/71_80/vol76/vol_76.html

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2019年06月06日

メルケルがハーバード大で「壁を壊そう」

「真実を嘘と言わないで」「保護主義は繁栄を妨げる」
【全訳】
メルケルがハーバード大で「壁を壊そう」
トランプ批判に大喝采


President Bacow, Fellows of the Corporation, Members of the Board of Overseers, Members of the Alumni Board, Members of the Faculty, Proud Parents, and Graduates:

Today is a day of joy. It's your day. Many congratulations. I am delighted to be here today and would like to tell you about some of my own experiences. This ceremony marks the end of an intensive and, probably also, hard chapter in your lives. Now the door to a new life is opening.

That's exciting and inspiring.

The German writer Hermann Hesse had some wonderful words for such a situation in life. I'd like to quote him and then continue in my native language. Hermann Hesse wrote:

In all beginnings dwells a magic force
For guarding us and helping us to live.
(1)

These words by Hermann Hesse inspired me when I completed my physics degree at the age of 24. That was back in the year 1978.

The world was divided into East and West. It was during of the Cold War. I grew up in East Germany, in the GDR, at a time when that part of my homeland was not free, in a dictatorship. People were oppressed and monitored by the state. Political opponents were persecuted. The government of the GDR was afraid that the people would run away to freedom. And that's why the Berlin Wall was built. It was made of concrete and steel. Anyone who was discovered trying to overcome it was arrested or shot. This wall in the middle of Berlin divided a people -- and it divided families. My family was divided too.

My first job after graduation was as a physicist in East Berlin at the Academy of Sciences. I lived near the Berlin Wall. On the way home from my institute I walked past it every day. Behind it lay West Berlin, freedom. And every day, when I was very close to the wall, I had to turn away at the last moment -- and head towards my apartment. Every day I had to turn away from freedom at the last minute. I don't know how many times I thought, I couldn't stand it anymore. It was really frustrating.

I was not a dissident. I did not run up and bang against the wall, but neither did I deny its existence because I did not want to lie to myself. The Berlin Wall limited my possibilities. It was literally in my way. But one thing that this wall could not do in all these years: It could not impose limits on my own inner thoughts. My personality, my imagination, my yearnings -- these could not be limited by prohibitions and coercion.

Then came the year 1989. Throughout Europe, the shared will for freedom unleashed incredible powers. Hundreds of thousands took to the streets in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and the GDR. The people demonstrated and brought down the wall. What many people had not thought possible -- even me -- became reality. Where once there had been a dark wall, a door suddenly opened. The moment had come for me, too, to step through that door. I did not have to turn away from freedom at the last minute any longer. I could cross that line and venture out into the great, wide open.

During these months, 30 years ago, I personally experienced that nothing has to remain as it is. This experience, dear graduates, is the first thought I would like to share with you today for your future: What seems fixed and unchanging can in fact change.

And in matters both large and small, every change begins in the mind. The generation of my parents had to learn this most painfully. My father and mother were born in 1926 and 1928. When they were as old as most of you here today, the rupture of civilization that was the Shoa [Holocaust] and the Second World War had just ended. My country, Germany, had brought unimaginable suffering upon Europe and the world.

How likely would it have been for the victors and the vanquished to remain irreconcilable for many years? But instead, Europe overcame centuries of conflict. The result was a peaceful order based on common values rather than supposed national strength.

Notwithstanding all the discussions and temporary setbacks, I am firmly convinced that we Europeans have united for the better. And the relationship between Germans and Americans shows how former enemies in war can become friends.

It was George Marshall who gave a significant contribution to this with the plan which he proclaimed in this very place at a Commencement Address in 1947. The transatlantic partnership with our values of democracy and human rights has given us a time of peace and prosperity to the benefit of all that has lasted for over 70 years. And today? It will not be long now before the politicians of my generation are no longer subject to the program of "Exercising Leadership," but at most will be dealt with in "Leadership in History."

Dear Harvard Class of 2019: Your generation will face the challenges of the 21st century in the coming decades. You are among those who will lead us into the future. Protectionism and trade conflicts endanger free world trade and thus the foundations of our prosperity. The digital transformation covers all areas of our lives. Wars and terrorism lead to displacement and forced migration. Climate change threatens our planet's natural resources. It and the resulting crises are caused by humans. So we can and must do everything humanly possible to really get this challenge to humanity under control. This is still possible. But everyone has to do their part and -- I say this self-critically -- get better. Therefore, I will do my utmost to ensure that Germany, my country, will reach the goal of climate neutrality by 2050.

Change for the better is possible if we tackle it together. Going it alone, we will not succeed. And so this is my second thought for you: More than ever we have to think and act multilaterally instead of unilaterally, global instead of national, cosmopolitan rather than isolationist. In short, together instead of alone.

You, dear graduates, will in the future have quite different opportunities for this than my generation did. After all, your smartphone probably has far more computing power than the IBM mainframe replicated by the Soviet Union, which I was allowed to use in 1986 for my dissertation in the GDR.

Today, we use Artificial Intelligence to scan millions of images for symptoms of disease -- for example, to better diagnose cancer. In the future, empathic robots could help doctors and caregivers to focus on the individual needs of individual patients. We can not say what applications will be possible, but the opportunities that come with [AI] are truly breathtaking.

Class of 2019, it is essentially up to you as to how we will take advantage of these opportunities. It will be you who will decide how our way of working, communicating, moving, and even developing our way of life will evolve.

As Federal Chancellor, I often have to ask myself: Am I doing the right thing? Am I doing something because it is right, or just because it's possible? You should ask yourself that again and again -- and that is my third thought for you today: Do we set the rules of technology or does technology determine how we interact? Do we focus on people with their dignity in all its many facets, or do we only see the customer, the data sources, the objects of surveillance?

These are difficult questions. I have learned that answers to difficult questions can be found if we always see the world through the eyes of others; if we respect the history, tradition, religion, and identity of others; if we firmly stand by our inalienable values and act accordingly; and if we do not always follow our initial impulses, even with all the pressure to make snap decisions, but instead stop for a moment, keep quiet, think, take a break.

Of course, that takes a lot of courage. Above all, it requires being truthful to others and perhaps most importantly to ourselves. Where better to begin with it than here, in this place, where so many young people from all over the world come to learn under the motto of Truth -- to do research, and discuss the questions of our time? This implies that we do not describe lies as truth and truth as lies. (2)

As well, it implies that we do not accept grievances as our normality.

But what, dear graduates, could stop you -- what could hinder us from doing that? Again, there are walls: walls in the mind, walls of ignorance and narrow-mindedness. They exist between members of a family as well as between social groups, between those of different skin colors, peoples, religions. (3)

I would like us to break down these walls -- walls that repeatedly prevent us from communicating about the world in which we want to live together.

Whether we succeed is up to us. Therefore, dear graduates, my fourth thought is this: Take nothing for granted. Our individual freedoms are not self-evident; democracy is not self-evident; neither is peace nor prosperity.

But if we tear down the walls (4) that restrict us, if we open the door and embrace new beginnings, then everything is possible. Walls can collapse. Dictatorships can disappear. We can stop global warming. We can overcome hunger. We can eradicate diseases. We can give people, especially girls, access to education. We can fight the causes of displacement and forced migration. We can do all this.

So let us not ask first what is wrong or what has always
been. Let us first ask what is possible and look for something
that has never been done before.
(5)


It was these exact words I spoke in 2005 during my very first policy statement, as the newly elected Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, as the first woman in this office, in the German Bundestag, the German Parliament.

And with these words I would like to share with you my fifth thought: Let us surprise ourselves with what is possible -- let us surprise ourselves
with what we can do.

In my own life, it was the fall of the Berlin Wall that allowed me to step out into the open almost 30 years ago. At that time, I left behind my work as a scientist and went into politics. It was an exciting and magical time, just as your lives will be exciting and full of magic. But I also had moments of doubt and worry. For we all knew what lay behind us, but not what might lie ahead. Perhaps you're feeling a bit like that today amidst all the joy of the occasion.

Therefore, as my sixth thought, I can also tell you this: The moment you stand out in the open is also a moment of risk. Letting go of the old is part of a new beginning. There is no beginning without an end, no day without night, no life without death. Our whole life consists of this difference, the space between the beginning and the ending. What's in between, we call life and experience.

I believe that we must always be ready to finish things to feel the magic of beginnings and to make the most of our opportunities. That was my experience in study, in science, and it's what I have experienced in politics. And who knows what's in store for me after life as a politician? It is completely open. Only one thing is clear: It will again be something different and something new.

That's why I want to leave this wish with you:

[1] Tear down walls of ignorance and narrow-mindedness, for nothing has to stay as it is.
It's six things [to remember]:

[2] Take joint action in the interests of a multilateral global world.

[3] Keep asking yourselves: Am I doing something because it is right or simply because it's possible?

[4] Don't forget that freedom is never something that can be taken for granted.

[5] Surprise yourself with what is possible.

[6] Remember that openness always involves risks. Letting go of the old is part of the new beginning.

And above all, nothing can be taken for granted; everything is possible.

Thank you!

(1) Hesse, H. Stages. In The Glass Bead Game (Magister Ludi). New York: Henry Holt, Available online at: http://hesse.projects.gss.ucsb.edu/works/stages.html

(2) Timely antimetabole

(3) Thoughtful asyndeton

(4) Allusion to President Reagan's famous words during his Brandenburg Gate Address

(5) Merkel, A. (2005). Regierungserklärung von Bundeskanzlerin Dr. Angela Merkel vor dem Deutschen Bundestag am 30. November 2005 in Berlin. [At: https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/service/bulletin/regierungserklaerung-von-bundeskanzlerin-dr-angela-merkel-795782]

Original Text Source: bundeskanzlerin.de

Text Note: Translated from the German language via Google with some minor content formatting and style modifications.

Page Updated: 6/2/19

German Chancellor Angela Merkel's address
Harvard Commencement 2019

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ofED6BInFs

Angela Merkel
Commencement Address at Harvard University
delivered 30 May 2019

https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/angelamerkelharvardcommencementenglish.htm

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